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日治時期以來,隨著「現代化」(Modernization)建設之推動,臺灣開始輸入西方美術概念,同時透過美術教育、美術團體、展示活動、批評體制等機制,形塑「美術群屬」(Art Society),藉由殖民統治轉接而來的西化過程,產生折射性的「文化轉向」(Cultural Transformation)。戰後政治局勢丕變,國族主義凌駕一切,產生另一波以政治正確為依歸的文化轉向,在冷戰中尋找民族復興契機的戰後美術,卻長久陷於「東方∕西方」、「現代∕傳統」、「本土∕外來」、「地方∕中央」等二元論戰之中。解嚴後,社會價值觀或藝術面向始趨於民主及多元,逐漸邁向摸索文化身分及主體認同的嶄新時代。
 
臺灣百年美術的發展,與學院美術教育的推動習習相關,從戰前的圖畫師範科到戰後美術院校的成立,在兼顧實用及美育理想的雙重目標下,歷經反映時局、維繫政權、跨越族裔及作為國際化文化資本等不同階段,演化出不同世代、群屬及價值觀等的美術典型。以國立臺灣師範大學美術學系為首的戰後學校美教單位,莫不在此種時代氛圍或體制主導的前提下,開展其機關面貌。透過符合國家政策及現實需求之考量,樹立其學術威權、國族或文化「正典」(National / Cultural Canon)等價值。
 
「正典性」(the canonical)的打造、解構或再造,來自於對「文化轉向」的共識凝聚與行動實踐,藝術家若僅依賴其被體制賦予的特殊資格而擁有聲名地位,即無法不受主流價值的牽制。反之,拒絕牽制,或透過美學再建構的力量,始能達成轉向的目的,形成「延異」(Différance)的外擴現象。藝術風尚的改變,關乎對「正典」所代表的價值進行重新評價,不同世代基於美學認知或對政治、社會議題投入程度之差異,產生屬於或彰顯世代意識、群屬身分的不同「正典」類型與「延異」結果。
 
此外,在探討被慣稱為臺灣「後山」的宜蘭時,其「地方美術史」藉由學院或首都美術權力關係的連結,歷經何種「正典化」歷程?外移與內徙宜蘭所謂「在地」藝術家的定義是否改變、形成何種「延異」現象?本展覽邀請陳東元、洪東標、陳世強及林欽賢四位「宜蘭」藝術家聯合展出,經由四人出身於國立臺灣師範大學美術學系「正典」背景的對照,在學院教育、社會變動以及個人經歷等「轉向」的影響下,檢視其間的連結與差異,藉以探討「宜蘭美術」正典化的過程、現象與其後產生多元延異的階段變貌。
 
陳東元早期靜物創作反映嚴謹細膩的寫實風格,為日常物件與材質建構雄辯而客觀的典範性,然隨著鄉土主義的興起,轉而關注被長久遺忘的土地邊境、自然荒野及純樸風物,或簡或繁、或動或靜、或宏觀或微觀地,彰顯其為所謂「人間淨土」立傳建碑的人文思維。洪東標強調變形、分割及造型重組的表現形式,雖來自立體派、未來派,其目的卻在於解構其中的規制與模仿,同時形塑穿越國界、歷史與現實邊線的魔幻情境,藉由經年的教學反饋與身分省思,重燃對東方與在地美學的熱情,故鄉如詩夢土宛若再次初醒般地躍然紙上。
 
陳世強多變的創作興趣,游移在不同藝術尺標之間,或許來自求學時期的自我啟蒙以及對詭譎時局的敏銳覺察,濃重卻貼近觀者的視角、冷熱並存或凝縮現實與幻境的拼組手法,反映包含普普藝術的威權解放以及後現代乖離、雜揉、嘲諷與不實的真實感等的異化歷程。林欽賢藉由人像、肢體語彙,組構帶有藝術史圖像意涵的經典畫面,來自學院時期個案研究的分析性經驗,形塑宛若紀念碑式的結構與氛圍,後殖民強調文化主體、族裔身分重建的觸發,加速此種返回山海原生性的正典化工程,透過「肖像」重塑「本土價值」的桂冠榮光。

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Since the time of Japanese rule, with the push for modernization, artistic concepts from the West have been introduced to Taiwan. Meanwhile, through art education, art organizations, exhibitions, systems of criticism, and other mechanisms, art societies are formed, and a refractive cultural transformation took place based on the Westernization inherited from colonial rule. After the war, the political landscape underwent dramatic changes. Nationalism reigned supreme, resulting in another wave of cultural transformation oriented toward political correctness. Post-war art in Taiwan sought opportunities of national revival yet was caught between binary debates over East vs West, modernity vs tradition, nativeness vs foreignness, and local communities vs the central government. After the end of martial law, social values and artistic pursuit began to democratize and diversify, ushering in a new era of exploring cultural identities and subjective identities.

Artistic development in Taiwan over the past century has been intimately linked with the implementation of academic art education. From the pre-war normal art departments to post-war art academies, juggling both practicality and ideals in art education, through stages of reflecting the times, sustaining the regime, transcending ethnicities, and serving as international cultural assets, artistic paradigms have evolved for different generations, societies, and values. Art education institutions, headed by the Department of Fine Arts, National Taiwan Normal University, all began exploring possibilities within such zeitgeist or system. On the premise of complying with governmental policies and practical concerns, they established values including their academic authority and national/cultural canon.

The establishment, deconstruction, or reconstruction of the canonical come from the consensus and implementation regarding cultural transformation. If artists derive their reputation and status solely from their niche assigned by the system, they cannot escape the influence of mainstream values. Conversely, by resisting constraints or through aesthetic reconstruction, they may achieve transformation and, in turn, the diffusion of différance. Shifts in artistic trends involve the reevaluation of canonical values. The differences in aesthetic awareness and in the level of political and social involvement between generations has resulted in different canons and différance belonging to or manifesting generational consciousness as well as social identities.

Moreover, when discussing Yilan - a place often referred to as Taiwan’s back garden - what kind of canonization is its local art history undergoing based on the link between academia and the power relations within the capital’s art circles? Has the definition for “local” artists changed as they emigrate from and immigrate to Yilan? What kind of différance has such circumstances engendered? This exhibition features four “Yilan” artists - Chen Tung-Yuan, Hung Tung-Piao, Chen Shih-Chiang, and Lin Chin-Hsien. Against their “canonical” background in the Department of Fine Arts, National Taiwan Normal University, the exhibition examines their connections and differences as influenced by transformations such as academic and social changes, as well as by personal experiences, so as to explore the process and phenomenon of the canonization of “Yilan art” along with the progressive changes regarding the resulting diverse différance.

Chen Tung-Yuan’s early works of still life reflect a meticulous, realistic style, constructing an eloquent yet objective paradigm for everyday objects and materials. With the rise of provincialism, he shifted his focus to long-forgotten remote regions, the wilderness, and rustic sights and sounds. Simply or complexly, dynamically or statically, macroscopically or microscopically, he manifests the humanistic thought of celebrating this “paradise on earth.” Hung Tung-Piao places emphasis on expressions of distortion, division, and reconstruction. Despite coming from the cubist and futurist schools, his goal is to deconstruct the rules and imitations therein while creating fantastical scenarios that transcend national, historical, and realistic boundaries. With years of feedback from his teaching and reflections on his identity, he has rekindled his passion for oriental and native aesthetics. His native land, poetic and dream-like, comes to life on paper as if awakening for the first time.

Chen Shih-Chiang’s shifting creative interests wander among varying artistic disciplines. Influenced perhaps by his self-enlightenment during school years and his keen perceptions of our treacherous times, his style is strong yet close to the perspective of the viewer. His collage techniques that blend hot and cold or condense reality and fantasy reflect the liberation from authority in pop art as well as the alienation processes in post-modernism with biases, hybridity, satire, and an unreal realism. Through portraiture and body language, Lin Chin-Hsien constructs classic imagery reminiscent of art history icons. With analytical experience from doing case studies during his academic years, he creates monumental structures and atmospheres. Inspired by the emphases on cultural subjectivity and reconstruction of ethnic identities, he has accelerated the canonization of the return to nativeness. Through portraiture, he reestablishes the laureate glory of native values.

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策展人 | 白適銘

Curator ǀ Pai Shih-Ming

日本京都大學藝術史博士
國立臺灣師範大學美術學系系主任

PhD in History of Art, Kyoto University
Professor of Department of Fine Arts and Chair of College of Fine Arts, NTNU